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Eastern Woodlands mounds have various geometric shapes and rise to impressive heights. Lepper, Curator of Archaeology, Ohio Historical Society, hypothesize that the Octagon earthwork at Newark, Ohio, was a lunar observatory oriented to the 18.6-year cycle of minimum and maximum lunar risings and settings on the local horizon. John Eddy completed an unpublished survey in 1978, and proposed a lunar major alignment for the Octagon.
The gigantic sculpted earthworks often took the shape of animals, birds, or writhing serpents. Due to considerable evidence and surveys, plus the good survival condition of the largest mounds, more information can be obtained. Ray Hively and Robert Horn of Earlham College in Richmond, Indiana, were the first researchers to analyze numerous lunar sightlines at the Newark Earthworks (1982) and the High Banks Works (1984) in Chillicothe, Ohio.
Or, Hopewell was said to have originated in western Illinois and spread by diffusion ... Similarly, the Havana Hopewell tradition was thought to have spread up the Illinois River and into southwestern Michigan, spawning Goodall Hopewell.
(Dancey 114) The name "Hopewell" was applied by Warren K.
They also perhaps were able to develop influence by the creation of reciprocal obligations with other important members of the community.
Whatever the source of their status and power, the emergence of "big-men" was another step toward the development of the highly structured and stratified sociopolitical organization called the chiefdom.
These people then converted the materials into products and exported them through local and regional exchange networks.Within this area, societies participated in a high degree of exchange with the highest amount of activity along waterways.The Hopewell exchange system received materials from all over what is now the United States.The Hopewell tradition (also called the Hopewell culture) describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 100 BCE to 500 CE, in the Middle Woodland period.The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations.
Grizzly bear teeth, fresh water pearls, sea shells, sharks' teeth, copper and even small quantities of silver were turned into beautifully crafted pieces.