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Pharmacodynamics tests are usually based on the occurrence of toxicity to determine the maximum tolerated dose.With the application of biomarkers, maximum doses are determined by the presence of specific biomarkers.Before 1990, the issue of biomarkers was addressed in about one out of twenty clinical trials performed.Nevertheless, since 2005, a record of 20% clinical trials performed addressed biomarkers.However, there has been the recognition of patients bearing distinctive inherent traits which cause variations in response to therapy and subsequently tailoring medicines toward these unique responses.It is in this light that personalized medicine (PM) evolved which is the tailoring of treatment to the unique molecular or genetic mapping of individual patients and how these unique features contribute to the occurrence of certain disease pattern and progression.For example, in the management of Hepatitis C, which is based on genetic response, nongenetic factors such as age, obesity, and alcohol consumption have been reported to influence treatment outcomes.

: crises, food movements, and regime change / Eric Holt-Giménez -- Conclusion: cultivating the fertile field of food justice / Alison Hope Alkon and Julian Agyeman.System Biology translates to PM by elucidating mechanism-based disease development, disease risk estimation, preventive medicine, personalized disease, and treatment monitoring.Systems biology is most useful in preventive PM by developing tools to detect minute changes in molecular profiles at the early stages of disease development.Biomarkers exist as proteins, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), messenger ribonucleic acid or radiological parameters which are applicable in areas of disease risk estimation, diagnostic screening, diagnosis, prognosis, prediction, and response monitoring.One application of biomarkers is the use in determining dose size for clinical trials.

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The complex nature of drug response is as a result of a combination of both genetic and environmental factors.

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